عدد الرسائل : 695
Localisation : Fes
نقاط : 45
السٌّمعَة : -1
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2006
|موضوع: اليكم Writing هجرة الأدمغة حسب المقرر الجديد (تعريف_الأسباب الجمعة 18 أبريل - 13:01|| |
Statistics on the brain drain from Africa are scarce but troubling.
According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Africa has already lost one third of its human capital and is continuing to lose its skilled personnel at an increasing rate, with an estimated 20,000 doctors, university lecturers, engineers and other professionals leaving the continent annually.................
|Causes Of Brain Drain|
|Push Factors||Pull Factors|
|• Lack of research and other facilities,including support staff; inadequacy of research funds, lack of professional equipment and tools.|
• Low and eroding wages and salaries.
• Unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of
transport, housing, etc.
• Under-utilization of qualified personnel;
lack of satisfactory working conditions;
low prospect of professional development
|• Substantial funds for research,advanced technology, modern facilities;availability of experienced support staff.|
• Higher wages and income.
• Higher standard of living.
• Better working conditions;
Impacts of Brain Drain
|Effects of Brain Drain|
• Reduces the already low quantity of skilled manpower available in African countries and needed for their development.
• Reduces numbers of dynamic and innovative people, whether entrepreneurs or academics
• Increases dependence on foreign technical assistance
• Slows the transfer of technology and widens the gap between African and industrialized countries
• Contribution of new skills when migrants return
• Remittances from skilled migrants boosts household welfare
• Remittances support the balance of payments
Best estimates suggest that Africans working abroad send home some US$45 billion a year.
|•develop and valorize Africa's human resources and create|
job and career opportunities .
•Respect and consolidation of human rights and democracy,namely freedom of speech.
|•establish necessary and positive political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the brain drain.|
•the necessity of setting Meritocracyand transparency as the only criteria in promotions and appointments