عدد الرسائل : 695
Localisation : Fes
نقاط : 45
السٌّمعَة : -1
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/07/2006
|موضوع: Brain Drain الجمعة 16 مايو - 9:54|| |
Brain drainEvery year developing countries lose a large amount of highly skilled workers to developed countries.The exodus of these workers is the result of political conflicts and/or economic issues. Immigrating to developed countries such as the United States offers both financial and social stability. However, the home country experiences a brain drain crisis that negatively affects their social and economic sector.
In developing countries, increased unemployment among college graduates is the driving force behind migration. These countries have limited employment opportunities for highly skilled workers. According to the African Capacity Building Foundation, "African countries lose 20,000 skilled personnel to the developed world every year" (Sriskandarajah, 2005, para. 3). Moreover, inflation, political strife and stagnant wages make emigration an attractive solution.
The demand for skilled workers in the global market increases the mobility of migrants. In developed countries, industries such as information technology and health have experienced growth, which results in the demand for more workers. The open market allows employers to gain access to skilled professionals in the developing countries. This flow of labor increases productivity in the host country.
The lost of highly skilled workers affects social and economic growth in developing countries. For instance, Malawi is associated with one of the world's most severe nurse shortages. According to Roisin, "More registered nurses have left to work aboard than the 336 who remain in the country's public hospitals and clinics that serve most of its 11.6 million people"( para 6). Lack of these nurses affect the delivery of vital health services. Moreover, the lost in human capital, decreases the country's overall growth.
When the best and brightest leave after qualifications their country receive little or no returns on their investments. In Africa, there is a high demand for South African professionals in the global market. This is attributed to the quality of training and education provided to them in their field of study. However, the Caribbean has the greatest amount of educated people living in the United States. According to Migration Information Source, "roughly one-third of the Caribbean's college educated population are living in the United States (Lowell, 2003, para. 6). The largest impact are felt in Jamaica and Haiti, "which have two-third of their college educated population living in the United States " (Lowell, 2003, para 6).When these educated individuals contribute to the development of the host country but their home country's economic and social sector deteriorates.
In contrast, supporters suggest that migration spur economic growth in developing countries. Remittances from migrant workers increase the home country's capital. According to Johnson (2006), "In some low income countries, remittances can account for up to 15 percent of annual gross domestic product" (para. 6). Most importantly, remittances develop infrastructure and financial resources that facilitate growth.In addition, diaspora communities promote "inward investments, technology transfer and increased trade flows" (Skiskandarajah, 2005, para. 16). The overall effect of brain drain is beneficial to developing countries.
However, the United Nations developed numerous programs to combat the flight of highly skilled workers. One such program is Transfer Knowledge through Expatriates Nationals (TOKEN). This program encourages diaspora communities to aid in the development of their country especially those in post conflict areas. They facilitate development in countries such as Africa, Lebanon and India.
Throughout the research on brain drain in developing countries many supporters suggest that remittances encourage economic growth. But, my research question is how can remittances spur development in social sectors? Can remittances be enough to compensate for the lost of highly skilled workers? I do not believe that a country can develop without sufficient manpower in social services such as education and *health. Finally, I will examine how the lost of these workers affect residing citizens and future of the third world countries